1 Broadway # 14, Cambridge, MA 02142
About 40 percent of all cancers in the United States -- more than 630,000 in all -- are associated with excess weight, health officials said Tuesday, urging a renewed focus on prevention. The rates of these overweight- and obesity-related cancers are rising, in contrast to the overall rate of new cancer cases which has dropped since the 1990s.
"When assessing cancer risk, body mass index (BMI) and fat percentage may not be adequate measures as they fail to assess the distribution of fat mass," she explained. "Avoiding central obesity may confer the best protection."
Obesity has become one of the leading preventable causes of cancer. Yet, the mechanisms of how obesity and associated systemic inflammation can promote cancer progression remain poorly understood. In a new study, researchers found that the cytokines interleukin 5 (IL-5) and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) are induced in obesity and, in obese mice, this leads to lung neutrophilia and supports breast cancer metastasis to the lung. Quail, Olson et al. used mouse models of obesity, induced by a high-fat diet (diet-induced obesity, DIO mice) or leptin deficiency (ob/ ob mice), to study how inflammation in obesity is linked to breast cancer metastasis.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Epidemiologic data suggest that T2DM is associated with an increased incidence and mortality from many cancers. The purpose of this review is to discuss the links between diabetes and cancer, the effects of various antidiabetic medications on cancer incidence and mortality, and the effects of anticancer therapies on diabetes.
There is growing evidence that inflammation is a central and reversible mechanism through which obesity promotes cancer risk and progression.
The association of obesity with cancer, increasingly recognized in both lay and medical communities and underscored by the ongoing obesity epidemic, has stimulated a large body of research and led to calls for programs to minimize any potential impact of obesity on cancer
We reviewed the literature regarding overweight and obesity and breast cancer survival outcomes, overall and with regard to breast cancer subtypes, breast cancer therapies, biologic mechanisms, and possible interventions.
Observational studies have reported a modest association between obesity and risk of ovarian cancer; however, whether it is also associated with survival and whether this association varies for the different histologic subtypes are not clear. We undertook an international collaborative analysis to assess the association between body mass index (BMI), assessed shortly before diagnosis, progression-free survival (PFS), ovarian cancer-specific survival and overall survival (OS) among women with invasive ovarian cancer.
Although several studies have established a link between obesity and colon cancer risk, little is known about the effect of obesity on outcomes after diagnosis. We investigated the association of body mass index (BMI) with outcomes after colon cancer in patients from cooperative group clinical trials.
Body-mass index (the weight in kilograms divided by the square of the height in meters) is known to be associated with overall mortality. We investigated the effects of age, race, sex, smoking status, and history of disease on the relation between body-mass index and mortality.